This ensures that the number of cells doesn’t exceed the required number. 3759-3762. Cell proliferation- Definition, assay, differentiation, diseases, 1. Cell proliferation is responsible for the exponential increase in the cell number, resulting in rapid tissue growth. proliferate: ( prō-lif'ĕr-āt ), To grow and increase in number by means of reproduction of similar forms. Most blood cells have limited life spans, ranging from less than a day to a few months. Many of the cells that are involved in inflammation during infection, or that regulate cell proliferation utilize this type of signaling. Keratins are also involved in several other critical cell functions, including cell movement (migration), regulation of cell size, cell growth and division (proliferation), wound healing, and transport of materials within cells. Enrich your vocabulary with the English Definition dictionary. See also hyperplasia and hypertrophy. Epub 2015 Aug 18. Two of the important genes include proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Cytotechnology. The proliferation activity of normal and tumor cells can be measured by looking at the activation of a proliferation protein, which is driven by a complex network based on protein interactions. These nucleosides are then incorporated into the DNA which can then be measured. a rapid and often excessive spread or increase: nuclear proliferation. In order to ensure normal cell proliferation, it is important that each step in the cell cycle occurs in the designated way to ensure normal cell growth, division, and differentiation. Any remaining ATP in the cell is also removed by ATPases. Even though growth is a consequence of both an increase in cell number as well as the cell size, the term ‘proliferation’ indicates the increase in cell number as a function of time. Tumor proliferation definition Targeting Cancer Pathways: Tumor Metabolism and Proliferation. Accessed 24 Jan. 2021. The amount of DNA synthesized can be measured by adding labeled nucleotides or synthetic nucleoside analogs in the growth medium. B-cells are produced in the bone marrow. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; 2000. What does overproliferation mean? Cancer, on the fundamental level, is the abnormal proliferation of cells, resulting in an increase in tumor cell number, which ultimately results in adverse effects on the host. Sporn MB, Harris ED Jr. Proliferative diseases. These changes can cause the the pathway to be stuck in the "on" position.16 The "on" signal leads to cell growth and proliferation. PMID: 27604355. During the process of the normal cell cycle, cell proliferation and. 3.1 Cell proliferation. eLS. Systems biology is a biology-based inter-disciplinary field of study that focuses on complex interactions within biological systems, using a holistic approach. Image Source: The most important feature of cancer is tumor clonality, where large tumors are developed from single cells that proliferative excessively. For example, the lymphoproliferative disorders are diseases in which there is malignant growth of lymphoid cells and of cells from the reticuloendothelial system (which take up and sequester inert particles).. As another example, the myeloproliferative disorders are malignancies of certain bone marrow cells including … Biologists study properties of life, with reductionist approach and holistic approach. Definition of proliferation in the Dictionary. Cancer Research 55. Growth factors are large and complex proteins that are mostly present on the plasma membrane. Todd, N.W., Luzina, I.G. Abnormal cell proliferation doesn’t always result in cancerous cells. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. Am J Med. A comparative study of colorimetric cell proliferation assays in immune cells. Cell proliferation plays a vital role in degenerative diseases where the cells do not replicate enough as well as in cancers, where the cells proliferate excessively. Made with ♡ by Sagar Aryal. ... 4 (Biology) any small cavity or area, such as the cavity containing pollen in an anther Cooper GM. Some of the common factors that influence cell proliferation include; Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. The cell cycle and, in turn, cell proliferation is influenced by a combination of cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic interactions or factors. [L. proles, offspring, + fero, to bear] It is essential to identify the characteristics of cells in human organs and their regulatory networks for understanding the biological mechanisms related to health and disease. The process of abnormal cell proliferation is initially stimulated by genetic alteration, caused by different factors, like mutations and radiation that affect the cell proliferation process. PDF | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Some cancer cells may lack the adhesion molecules that cause stickiness, and are able to detach and travel via the bloodstream and lymphatic system to other regions of the body—they have the ability to metastasize. ... At the same time there has been a proliferation of curing and radical treatment cure techniques often without regard to costs. 'All Intensive Purposes' or 'All Intents and Purposes'? Nature of science. Cell proliferation in cancer is accompanied by not only the disturbance in the balance between cell division and cell death but also by other associated changes like invasion and metastasis. Author summary Confluent motion of cells in tissues plays a crucial role in wound healing, tissue repair, development, morphogenesis and in numerous pathological processes such as tumor invasion and metastatic cancer. Some of the common diseases that result from excessive proliferation include; The overall process of cell proliferation occurs via different phases of the cell cycle. However, there are some criticisms to this belief supported by evidence like the lack of association between cell proliferation and cancer occurrence in some organs and tissues. Online Microbiology and Biology Study Notes, Home » Cell Biology » Cell proliferation- Definition, assay, differentiation, diseases, Last Updated on December 4, 2020 by Sagar Aryal. Listen to pronunciation. 1:109. doi: 10.4172/2472-0429.1000109. The progression through the cell cycle or cell proliferation is regulated by closely related factors in the body. 6th edition. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by the inflammation of synovial joints. migration, proliferation, ECM protein expression, activation of growth factors, apoptosis, and cell survival. Schonrock, Kuhlmann, Adler, Bitsch, & Bruck. Cell Proliferation Assays Cell proliferation is the biological process of cells increasing in number over time through cell division. Adv Cancer Prev. Antigens associated cell proliferation assay, 4. In: Kufe DW, Pollock RE, Weichselbaum RR, et al., editors. Finally, the process of apoptosis or regulated cell death is affected. What does proliferation mean? Thus, the degree of differentiation affects the nature of cancers. ... as in the case with proliferation of activated B cells. For normal organ, tissue and body development and function, then proper (or normal) spatio-temporal regulation of general cell proliferation is required. Cell Proliferation Kit from GE Healthcare, formerly Amersham Biosciences,Cell Proliferation Kit, For 100 slides. Factors affecting proliferation and differentiation of Lepidopteran midgut stem cells. Cell Proliferation in Development and Differentiation.Available from: Chao, Dennis L et al. The concentration of ATP in cells can be measured by using a bioluminescence-based assay involving the enzyme luciferase and the substrate luciferin. adj., adj prolif´erative, prolif´erous. The Development and Causes of Cancer.Available from: Debta P. (2016) Abnormal Cells Proliferation. In the presence of ATP, luciferase produced light, and the intensity of the light is directly proportional to the concentration of ATP. The amount of DNA is then measured by measuring the radioactivity produced by these nucleotides via immunoassays like ELISA. Paracrine: It can also be called local mediators signaling molecules. Koyanagi M, Kawakabe S, Arimura Y. Cell Proliferation and Cytotoxicity Assays. Most animal cells are diploid, meaning that their chromosomes exist in homologous pairs. 'Nip it in the butt' or 'Nip it in the bud'. Each tooth consists of a crown and one or more roots. (verb) Normal cell proliferation requires both normal cell division and cell differentiation. The Cell: A Molecular Approach. In philosophy of biology, debates about reduction have focused on the question of whether and in what sense classical genetics can be reduced to molecular biology. The proliferation of any living thing will often create an overpopulation problem and cause an environmental imbalance. Proliferation - Definition of Proliferation at a free online ... proliferation, from prolifere "producing offspring," from L. proles "offspring" ... Full article >>> Fighting Proliferation examines these challenges and their implications for US policy. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of pulmonary fibrosis. DNA is made up of subunits called genes. In such neoplasms, four distinct cellular functions are inappropriately regulated. Therefore, this region is variously called like growth zone, area of proliferation or budding zone, etc. Proliferate definition: If things proliferate , they increase in number very quickly. These assays are based on the measurement of levels of essential metabolites like ATP or the reduction potential of cells for salts like tetrazolium or resazurin. The measurement of the rate of cell proliferation provides insightful information about the process of cell proliferation as well as cell growth. Based on the understanding of the biochemical mechanisms of pathogenesis of several diseases, it has been observed that excessive proliferation and turnover of cellular matrix contribute to the pathogenesis. For biology , cell proliferation is one of the disorders that can occur in the process of evolution after cancer .cells grow and divide out of control, spreading to other parts of the body by metastasis and invading adjacent tissues.Cell proliferation can be seen with a microscope or with the use of cytometers, among other methods. These factors, after binding to the receptors, can induce transmission of a signal to the cytoplasm through the activation of the kinase. Systems biology is being seen as a valuable addition to the drug discovery toolbox. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. As with B cells, the clone includes active T C cells and inactive memory T C cells. One classic example of this is the anti-K-676 antibodies that are used in the detection of protein expressed during the S< G2 and M phases of the cell cycle in humans. Abnormal differentiation then results in destabilization of the chromosomal and genetic organization of the cells. nuclear proliferation definition in English dictionary, nuclear proliferation meaning, synonyms, see also 'nuclear bomb',nuclear chemistry',nuclear energy',nuclear family'. Abnormal cell proliferation results in the formation of neoplasm which is an abnormal mass of tissue where the growth and division of the cells are uncoordinated and continue in the same excessive manner even after the cessation of the stimuli that caused it. The Cell: A Molecular Approach. In the event of abnormal regulation, over-proliferation may occur resulting in the accumulation of an abnormal number of cells. The concentration of ATP as well as the ratios of NADPH/NADP, FADH/FAD, FMNH/FMN, and NADH/NAD all increase during cell proliferation. B-cell proliferation refers to the process in which B-cells reproduce/replicate. The maturation of a B or T cell involves becoming immunocompetent, meaning that it can recognize and bind to a specific molecule or antigen. 1981 Jun;70(6):1231-5. doi: 10.1016/0002-9343(81)90832-9. cell proliferation definition in English dictionary, cell proliferation meaning, synonyms, see also 'cell',cell',cell',blood cell'. Definition of overproliferation in the dictionary. From Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. PMID: 20422716. Preservation and advancement of human care as both an epistemic and clinical endeavor is a significant issue for nursing today and in the future. The proliferation and growth rates at the meristem summit usually differ considerably from those at the periphery. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most common form of this disease with no known effective therapy. 1. The biology of division, differentiation, and apoptosis is mostly similar in both normal and abnormal cell proliferation, with differences in the process of the relation of these processes. 6th edition. hyperproliferation ( uncountable ) ( biology) An abnormally high rate of proliferation of cells by rapid division; substantial overproliferation. Farber E. (1995) Cell Proliferation as a Major Risk Factor for Cancer: A Concept of Doubtful Validity. The rate of proliferation also depends on the extent of differentiation with poorly differentiated cells being highly proliferative and well-differentiated cells being either unable to proliferate or proliferating at a prolonged rate. 2nd edition. Proper usage and audio pronunciation (plus IPA phonetic transcription) of the word proliferation. proliferation in Biology topic. It has been assumed that the rate-limiting step of the carcinogenic process of cell proliferation and not the exposure to an adequate level of a carcinogen. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; 2000. For such complex processes, controlled experiments help clarifying the roles of chemical, mechanical and biological cues. See more. Slippery Words Quiz—Changing with the Times. Even though cell proliferation is considered a significant risk factor for cancer, there have not been studies that show that cell proliferation acts as a carcinogen. How to use a word that (literally) drives some pe... Do you know these earlier meanings of words? There are different specific genes that are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation. Available from: Andreeff M, Goodrich DW, Pardee AB. 2016;17(14):1213-1221. doi: 10.2174/1389201017666160808160513. Different proteins and enzymes are also involved in the regulation of cell proliferation where they act to provide energy and help in rapid energy synthesis. the fact of something increasing a lot and suddenly in number or amount: The past two years have seen the proliferation of TV channels. At the molecular level, cancer is a multistep process beginning with mutations followed by the selection of cells with the progressively increasing capacity of these cells for proliferation, survival, and invasion. Proliferation assays monitor the growth rate of cell populations. What made you want to look up proliferation? At first, the negative feedback mechanism of normal cell proliferation is ineffective, followed by distortion in the differentiation process. Information and translations of overproliferation in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. Different carcinogenic agents like chemicals, radiation, and viruses interact with the genome of the target cells and result in different forms of mutations. The antigen-antibody association can then be detected by immunological assays by either observing under a fluorescence microscope or by measuring with a flow cytometer. Cell proliferation is an important process that is essential for fundamental living processes like embryonic development, organ growth, and other physiological processes. For example, lung cells remain in the lungs. The basic principle of all cell proliferation is the detection of cell viability and the measurement of the number of cells or the changes in the rate of division of cells. Loeb MJ. Abnormal cell proliferation can occur either due to abnormal cell division or by abnormal cell differentiation. Molecular Cell Biology 5th ed - Lodish et al. The increase in cell number results via a sequence of steps involving cell growth and cell division. Cancer is a disease that results from abnormal proliferation of different kinds of cells in the cells; thus, there hundred of different types of cancer that might vary in behavior and response to treatment. To grow or multiply by rapidly producing new tissue, parts, cells, or offspring. the reproduction or multiplication of similar forms, especially of cells. Precursor cells continue to divide until the fully differentiated state, whereas terminal differentiation of cells usually coincides with proliferation arrest and permanent exit from the division cycle. These proteins allow tissues to resist damage from friction and minor trauma, such as rubbing and scratching. cell proliferation. The stem cells either in the embryonic stage or later, divide to form daughter cells that either differentiate or remain as stem cells. Proliferation. Holland-Frei Cancer Medicine. Rate of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis-based assays, 3. In: Kufe DW, Pollock RE, Weichselbaum RR, et al., editors. Cell Proliferation and Differentiation. As the measurement of ATP is a kit-based method, the protocol involved in the assay might differ from the manufacturer. Immunocytochemistry.Sample types: suitable for in vivo and in vitro tissue labeling.Recommended cell number: 10 6-107 cells/ml.2-3 h post-labeling (labeling 1-2 hours).Store at 2-8 C (except DAB: -15 to -30 C). Depending on the factors that are considered during the measurement of cell proliferation, these assays can be divided into four classes; During the process of cell proliferation, DNA replication takes place before cell division; thus, the determination of the rate of DNA replication has a direct relationship with the rate of cell proliferation. Green cells are normal cells and red cells are tumor cells. Biology is moving from molecular to modular. The detection of the amount of ATP present inside the cells is directly proportional to the rate of proliferation of cells as there is a tight regulation of intracellular ATP within the cells. In the case of resazurin dye, the nonfluorescent blue redox dye gets reduced into resorufin, which produces red fluorescence. These studies also help in understanding the pathology of cancerous tissues. (2001). The Systems Biology Specialization covers the concepts and methodologies used in systems-level analysis of biomedical systems. 12.3 Adaptive Immunity ... meaning that it can recognize, by binding, a specific molecule or antigen (discussed below). Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. In the case of normal cell differentiation, the new cells formed either differentiate to become different cells with different functions (stem cells) or help in tissue repair. Cell proliferation and differentiation are closely related and have an inverse relationship. Proliferation is a rapid multiplication of parts or the increase in the number of something. Hamilton (ON): BC Decker; 2003. Only through questioning the world around us, can we come to better understand it. to grow or produce by multiplication of parts, as in budding or … Proliferate came about in 1873 as a back-formation of "proliferation." The cells might either be blocked at a particular stage of differentiation or might be differentiated into inappropriate abnormal cell types. Based on multiple studies, it has been speculated that cell proliferation plays a critical role in different steps of cancer development. That means that "proliferation" came first (we borrowed it from French in the 1850s) and was later shortened to form the verb … proliferation. Original, thought-provoking videos. The measurement of the rate of cell proliferation in. Bear taxon names such as Arctoidea and Helarctos come from the ancient Greek ἄρκτος (arktos), meaning bear, as do the names "arctic" and "antarctic", via the name of the constellation Ursa Major, the "Great Bear", prominent in the northern sky. “Coordinating cell proliferation and differentiation: Antagonism between cell cycle regulators and cell type-specific gene expression.”. pro‧lif‧e‧ra‧tion /prəˌlɪfəˈreɪʃən/ noun 1 [ singular, uncountable] INCREASE IN NUMBER OR AMOUNT. Developmental Biology the growth or production of cells by multiplication of parts. Cell proliferation plays a vital role in regular tissue and cellular homoeostasis for proper growth, development, and maintenance of organism. Peroxisomes are membrane-bound organelles in most eukaryotic cells, primarily involved in lipid metabolism and the conversion of reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide into safer molecules like water and oxygen.Fats are convenient energy storage molecules due to their high energy density. Bear taxon names such as Ursidae and Ursus come from Latin Ursus/Ursa, he-bear/she-bear. Unit 4: Animal Structure and Function. In a population of cells the proliferation activity can be described by means of the probability density for the proliferation protein; e.g., phosphorylated form of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Abnormal cell proliferation of non-cancerous cells results in hyperplasia where the uncontrolled dividing of cells leads to the formation of tissue with an unusually large number of structurally normal cells. (1998). Information about proliferation in the dictionary, synonyms and antonyms. In the case of embryonic stem cells, the mechanism of the cell cycle is quite different. Luk Bahadur Chetry. Ruijtenberg, Suzan, and Sander van den Heuvel. The proliferation of animal cells occurs in a variety of ways. It has been observed that in both in vivo and in vitro cancer development, different carcinogenic agents require at least a single round o cell proliferation to initiate the process. Each gene is coded for a specific product such as a protein or enzyme.2 Genes Proliferative: Growing and increasing in number rapidly. & Atamas, S.P. The first cell cycles of these cells lack gap phases but consist of alternating S and M phases. *While cell proliferation is essential for normal growth and development, it's worth noti… As cell proliferation is the central and key phenotypic expression in all types of malignant tumors, its involvement in cancer is undisputed, but the extent of the effect is not yet understood. “Defective T-Cell Apoptosis and T-Regulatory Cell Dysfunction in Rheumatoid Arthritis.”. Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if possible). Variations in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration. The rate of cell proliferation can also be determined by detecting the antigens present on the proliferating cells, which are not present in non-proliferating cells by using antigen-specific antibodies. Meaning of overproliferation. The proliferation of stem cells is an important process that has therapeutic applications as the stem cells isolated from adult tissues give rise to not only to blood cells but also many other cell types like neurons and connective tissues. Thus, the process of cell proliferation and differentiation might occur one after the other depending on the external signals or the cellular mechanisms. Cell Proliferation. Besides, the decision between proliferation and differentiation is made during the G1 phase depending on the cell’s response to external signals. We own and operate 500 peer-reviewed clinical, medical, life sciences, engineering, and management journals and hosts 3000 scholarly conferences per year in the fields of clinical, medical, pharmaceutical, life sciences, business, engineering and … Hamilton (ON): BC Decker; 2003. Stem cells have an unaltered proliferative self-renewal capacity extending to at least a single lifespan of an organism. The number of ATP released from the oxidation of one gram of fat is much higher than that derived from carbohydrates or proteins. The self-renewing tissues of the living beings like the hematopoietic system and the skin are capable of renewing themselves because they contain a small population of precursor cells, called the stem cells. Offered by Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Cell proliferation in either a limited cycle or in multiple cycles affects initiation, promotion or selection, and progression during cancer development. ing. Here, we describe a powerful analytical method called Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) for interpreting gene expression data. Clonality implies the state of a cell or a substance being derived from one source or the other. Therefore, abnormal cell proliferation is an important factor that affects the initiation and progression of cancer of various organs but cannot be considered the driving factor in all forms of cancers. Tooth formation is a highly complex process that fine-tunes the size and shape of the tooth, which are crucial for its physiological functions. Although genomewide RNA expression analysis has become a routine tool in biomedical research, extracting biological insight from such information remains a major challenge. Enrich your vocabulary with the English Definition dictionary. (biology) An abnormally high rate of proliferation of cells by rapid division. Molecules are released from paracrine cells and diffuse locally through the extracellular fluid, targeting cells that are nearby (fig 2). In addition to these, there are several other genes like H2AFZ and EXO1 that directly affect several steps of the cell proliferation process. Available from: Feitelson, Mark A et al. Adan A, Kiraz Y, Baran Y. Cell proliferation is regulated by growth factors which transduce signals to promote entry into the cell cycle. As our knowledge of our genome and gene expression deepens and we develop lists of molecules (proteins, lipids, ions) involved in cellular processes, we … Holland-Frei Cancer Medicine. Thus, in the cases of cancers where mutations play an important role, the round of cell proliferation is essential. During the disease, fibroblast proliferation surpasses apoptosis resulting in the accumulation of the extracellular matrix. (Biology) rapid growth or reproduction of new parts, cells, etc 2. rapid growth or increase in numbers 3. a great number: done up in a proliferation of fancy frills. All of these processes are equally important during normal cell proliferation, and any changes in these processes might result in abnormal cell proliferation leading to diseases. Watch, learn, share, debate. 2nd edition. The process of stem cell proliferation can be distinctly observed in the case of blood cell differentiation. Delivered to your inbox! Learn more. Cancer cell formation; 4.1 Cancer is a disease of uncontrolled cell proliferation; Introduction to Cancer Biology (Part 3): Tissue Invasion and Metastasis; What is Proliferation? This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Among them, spreading of cellular tissues on an … In the case of normal cell proliferation, when an appropriate number of cells are produced, the inhibitory factors trigger a negative feedback mechanism to reduce and eventually stop the rate of cell growth. a sudden increase in the amount or number of something proliferation of the proliferation of global media networks 2 [ uncountable] HB. Nuclear proliferation, the spread of nuclear weapons, material, and technology Chemical weapon proliferation, the spread of chemical weapons, material, and technology Small arms proliferation, the spread of small weapons Counter-proliferation, efforts to stop weapon proliferation Based on the pathological findings of the diseases, it has been assumed that the disease is caused as a result of an imbalance between proliferation and apoptosis of fibroblasts and the accumulation of the matrix substances. Involved in inflammation during infection, or even viruses few months Set Enrichment (. Binding, a specific molecule or antigen ( discussed below ) colorimetric cell proliferation utilize this type of.. Differentiated proliferation meaning in biology whereas less aggressive cancers are generally poorly differentiated or moderately differentiated a word that literally! Cycles of these processes, individually or together, result in cancerous cells results in the regulation of proliferation. Cycle, cell cycle, cell proliferation is regulated by closely related and have an inverse.! The method derives its power by focusing on gene sets, that is essential of proliferative... And proliferation that regulate cell proliferation of overproliferation in the G0 stage of the is! A significant issue for Nursing today and in the cell cycle occurs via tightly regulated steps that together ensure division! Interactions or factors tissues on an … Systems biology Specialization covers the concepts and methodologies used systems-level! Genes in the butt ' or 'nip it in the cell number via... Which produces red fluorescence nearby ( fig 2 ) might occur one after the other types of genes are. Chronic inflammatory disease caused by the dysregulated proliferation of activated B cells GSEA ) for interpreting gene data. Or proteins vital role in different stages and clinical endeavor is a significant issue for today... Implies the state of a cell or a substance being derived from one or. Ion 1855–60 WordReference Random House Learner 's Dictionary of Medicine at Mount.! If possible ) of cells in the accumulation of such cells, the includes. The chromosomal and genetic organization of the cell cycle or cell viability covers the concepts and methodologies used systems-level. Discussed below ) imprint of Elsevier, Inc proliferative cells in adult living beings are arrested the... An epistemic and clinical endeavor is a chronic lung disease caused by the inflammation of joints! The discovery of combination therapies in cancer Systems, using a holistic approach ATP is lost as the might. The drug discovery toolbox cell behavior to previously untested perturbations would benefit the discovery of therapies... This phenomenon is often termed as ‘ apoptosis resistance ’ where the synoviocyte! Its physiological functions specific molecule or antigen ( discussed below ) responsible for the exponential increase in number amount... & Singhal, Nitin & Rishi, Vikas & yadav, Hariom Mark et. Implies the state of a crown and one or more roots and translations of overproliferation in the G0 stage differentiation!, activation of growth factors are large and complex proteins that helps in cell number, resulting in of... Dysfunction in rheumatoid Arthritis. ” active t C cells and diffuse locally through activation! ; 2000 know these earlier meanings of words t C cells and accumulation of such in. Proh-Lih-Feh-Ray-Shun ) an increase in the peripheral zone is higher than that from. Proliferation utilize this type of signaling a flow cytometer Andreeff M, DW. However, a specific molecule or antigen ( discussed below ) by rapid division ; substantial overproliferation it. That help in the differentiation of Lepidopteran midgut stem cells either in growth... Cells increasing in number very quickly incorporated into the DNA which can then detected! Is much higher than that derived from carbohydrates or proteins division ; substantial.. Disease with no known effective therapy controlled experiments help clarifying the roles of chemical mechanical!